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CAT PRACTICE-1 QUESTIONS | VERBAL ABILITY AND READING COMPREHENSION

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Directions (1–4): Read the following passage and answer the given questions:
Everyone-even the most privileged among us-has
circumstances they would like to change in their life. As
the early sixth-century Roman philosopher Boethius put
it, ‘One has abundant riches, but is shamed by his ignoble
birth. Another is conspicuous for his nobility, but through
the embarrassments of poverty would prefer to be
obscure. A third, richly endowed with both, laments the
loneliness of an unwedded life!
Think about your own life and something causing you
stress, anxiety, or sadness. For example, maybe you are
struggling to find your job or career interesting and
fulfilling. Or maybe you aren’t getting much out of your
friendships, and feel lonely. How might you improve the
situation? Your answer might be, ‘I should move, get a
new job, and meet new people.’ In other words, you
should change the outside world to make it better for you.
Not so easy, though, is it? Moving, changing jobs, and
making an entirely new set of friends might be highly
impractical at this point in your life. And in any case, you
might suspect that you will take your problems with you,
because, well, you can’t move away from you.
I’m going to let you in on a secret that can help. Between
the conditions around you and your response to them is a
space. In this space, you have freedom. You can choose
to try remodelling the world, or you can start by changing
your reaction to it.
Sometimes, changing your circumstances is difficult but
absolutely necessary, such as in cases of abuse or
violence. And sometimes, changing your circumstances is
fairly easy: If you are lethargic every morning, start going
to bed earlier.
But in the grey areas in between, fighting against reality
can be impossible, or incredibly inefficient. Maybe you
have been diagnosed with a chronic illness for which there
are no promising treatment options. Perhaps your
romantic partner has left you against your wishes and
cannot be persuaded otherwise. Maybe you have a job you
like but a manager you don’t, and no one will give you a
new boss.
In these sorts of situations, changing how you feel can
actually be much easier than changing your physical
reality, even if it seems unnatural. Your emotions can
seem out of your control at the best of times, and even
more so during a crisis-which is exactly when changing
them would give you the greatest benefit. That can be
blamed in part on biology. Negative emotions such as
anger and fear activate the amygdala, which increases
vigilance toward threats and improves your ability to
detect and avoid danger. In other words, stress makes you
fight, flee, or freeze-not think, What would a prudent
reaction be at this moment? Let’s consider the options.
This makes good evolutionary sense: Half a million years
ago, taking time to manage your emotions would have
made you a tiger’s lunch.
But in the modern world, stress and anxiety are usually
chronic, not episodic. Odds are, you no longer need your
amygdala to help you outrun the tiger without asking your
conscious brain’s permission. Instead, you use it to handle
the nonlethal problems that pester you all day long. Even
if you don’t have tigers to outrun, you can’t relax in your
cave, because the emails are piling up. 

Q1 The main objective of the passage is to _______

(a) indicate that at times it is better to change oneself than to change the external environment

(b) show how the amygdale can increase vigilance towards threats and improve one’s ability to detect and avoid danger.

(c) analyse a key difference between reacting to stress between the prehistoric and the modern worlds.

(d) prove that everyone in this world, no matter how privileged, has circumstances that they wish to change.

Q2. Each of the following statements involves a response of changing how one feels EXCEPT
which one?

(a) An illness persisting for a long time or recurring.

(b) Liking one’s job but not the boss.

(c) Some sort of emotional or physical abuse.

(d) The desertion of a romantic partner.

Q3. What is the main conclusion of the first paragraph? 

(a) We are all born with something negative in our lives.

 (b) Everyone experiences stress, anxiety or sadness. 

(c) Everyone has circumstances that she or he wishes to alter. 

(d) Modern humans have very different stresses from prehistoric peoples.

Q4. According to the passage, what is the main disadvantage of the Amygdala? 

(a) It gives precedence to fight, flee, or freeze response and not to judicious thinking.

(b) It is a disadvantage in modern societies where there is no possibility of any attacks from wild animals.

 (c) It tries to signal the response of danger even when there isn’t actually one. 

(d) It gets activated only when one has negative emotions.

Directions (5): Read the following passage and answer the given questions:

Katrina Forrester’s In the Shadow of Justice provides a
detailed account of the intellectual development of this
young soldier, John Rawls, who eventually became the
celebrated philosopher. The question of fairness would
remain with Rawls for the rest of his life. In 1971, his 600-
page magnum opus, A Theory of Justice, debuted to
critical acclaim and cemented his position as one of the
most famous political philosophers in the Englishspeaking world by insisting that justice was fairness-that
the kind of objective standards for human society and
individual action capable of replacing God required an
ability to view the world from a distance and assess what
allocations of duties and wealth were fair. In the book,
Rawls argued that ‘basic liberties’ and the equality of
citizens were essential to this idea of fairness. Societies
could deviate from an equal distribution of benefits and
burdens only in cases governed by the ‘difference
principle’-which includes a requirement that inequalities
should provide the most benefits to the least advantaged.
Otherwise, a just society would have to be governed by
the fair distribution of responsibility, work, hardship, and
the wealth produced by a community-a distribution whose
fairness, he insisted, could be determined from behind a
‘veil of ignorance’ that prevented a hypothetical person
from knowing exactly where he or she would end up in
the social hierarchy.


With its doctrine of fairness, A Theory of Justice
transformed political philosophy. The English historian
Peter Laslett had described the field as ‘dead’ in 1956; with
Rawls’s book that changed almost overnight. Now
philosophers were arguing about the nature of Rawlsian
principles and their implications-and for that matter were
once again interested in matters of political and economic
justice. Rawls’s terms became lingua franca: Many
considered how his arguments, focused mostly on
domestic or national issues of justice, might be applied to
questions of international justice as well. Others sought to
extend his theory’s set of political principles, while still
others probed the limits of Rawls’s epistemology and the
narrowness of his focus on individuals. A decade after A
Theory of Justice appeared, Forrester notes, 2,512 books
and articles had been published engaging with its central
claims.


Rawls’s liberal theory of justice as fairness has continued
to define the shape and trajectory of political philosophy
and liberalism writ large to this day. In this sense, In the
Shadow of Justice is aptly named. But as Forrester shows,
the limits of Rawls’s theory and the political philosophy
that it helped birth remain with us as well. By redirecting
us from both history and sociology and premising justice
on abstract game theory, Rawls’s book and its liberal
vision of justice ended up promoting a political
philosophy that was ill-equipped for the era of sustained
academic and popular attention to historical injustice.

5. Why does the author feel that the book written by Katrina Forrester is appropriately named?

 (a) Because real justice is ephemeral and not possible for all of humanity. 

(b) Everyone experiences stress, anxiety or sadness. 

(c) Everyone has circumstances that she or he wishes to alter. 

(d) Modern humans have very different stresses from prehistoric peoples.

Directions (6–9): Read the following passage and answer the given questions:

Britain is in the midst of a drug emergency. The country
is witnessing unprecedented rates of Class A drug use;
Border Force officers are seizing more cocaine than at any
time in recorded history. The problem is particularly bad
in Scotland, which has the highest rate of drug deaths in
the European Union: 1,187 people died in 2018 in
Scotland, a record number, and the figures for 2019 look
set to be even higher.


This catastrophe was wholly avoidable, if the British
government had been willing to tackle the issue with the
seriousness it deserves. Instead, there has been a huge
reduction in services for those affected by drug addiction.
The sad reality is that the young people being lost to drugs
are mostly poor and voiceless, so politicians pay little
attention to them.


There are Conservative politicians who advocate a saner
view on drugs. Former prisons minister Crispin Blunt is
an outspoken supporter of legalising and regulating all
drugs as well as establishing a royal commission to assess
Britain’s drug policy. The Conservative Drug Policy
Reform Group is active in pushing for evidence-based
drugs policy. At the start of the year, Annie Wells, the
Scottish Conservatives’ public health spokeswoman,
called on Boris Johnson to take “radical” action: she said
she was open to the decriminalisation of drugs and the
introduction of consumption rooms where drugs could be
taken safely (a policy that already exists successfully
across Europe and Australia). In 2008, Johnson himself
backed the legalisation of medical marijuana.


The prime minister now has a unique opportunity to
follow Canada in making the UK the next major western
nation to legalise and regulate marijuana. Alcohol and
drug treatment must be properly funded to reverse the
years of damaging cuts. But given the Conservatives’
record, they are unlikely to lead on drug policy. So, the
Labour party must step up.


In the last 20 years, Labour has often pushed draconian
policies. But last year, the party came out in favour of
launching a royal commission to review the legalisation
of drugs. Once a new leader is in place, it needs to go
further, advocating the removal of criminal charges for
personal possession of illicit substances, pushing to
legalise and regulate all drugs and funding research into
the viable use of psychedelic drugs, such as MDMA,
psilocybin and ketamine in the treatment of mental health
problems. Until it adopts those stances, it can’t be
considered a truly progressive party.

Q6. Which of the following is not true as per the passage above?

(a) Britain has been proactively disbursing funds with a view to boost the recovery of drug-addicts.

(b) Most of the victims of the drug abuse are from the poor strata of the society, hence the issue doesn’t get the attention it deserves. 

(c) A few politicians and law-makers are in favour of legalising the drug consumption in safe limits. 

(d) Canada has been a pioneer in legalising the consumption of some of the drugs.

Q7. As per the passage above, which of the following is not a progressive step in ensuring the legalisation of the consumption of drugs?

 I. Removal of criminal charges for the possession of illicit substances. 

II. Exploring the avenues to make a more fruitful use of the drugs. 

III. Incentivising the drug addicts on giving up the drug abuse. 

(a) Only I 

(b) Only II 

(c) Only III 

(d) None of the above

Q8. What is the main idea of the passage above? 

(a) Legalising the drugs and regulating their use goes a long way in resolving the problem of drug abuse. 

(b) More financial assistance should be given to the cause of serving those who are on their road to recovery. 

(c) Substance abuse is a unique problem and it should be treated with a more progressive mindset. 

(d) Drugs have medicinal properties as well and it is necessary to evaluate the sanctions on the drug usage in the light of benefits the drugs offer.

Q9. Which of the following is true regarding the Conservative Party as per the passage above? 

(a) They are ready to decriminalise the possession and usage of drugs and take a more progressive stance in order to regulate the substance abuse. 

(b) They have been vouching for a more progressive move on the drug regulation policy. 

(c) Barring a few members, most of the members of the party are not in favour of taking a more liberal approach on the drug policy. 

(d) They do not want to follow the Canadian model of drug legalisation despite mounting political pressure.

Directions (10–13): Read the following passage and answer the given questions:

One way in which modern natural science can be expected
to produce directional historical change is through
economic development. Industrialisation is not simply the
intensive application of technology to the manufacturing
process and the creation of new machines. It is also the
bringing to bear of human reason to the problem of social
organisation and the creation of a rational division of
labour. Economic growth produced certain uniform social
transformations in all societies, regardless of their prior
social structure.


Modern natural science regulates the direction of
economic development by establishing a constantly
changing horizon of production possibilities. The
direction in which this technological horizon unfolds is
very closely intertwined with the development of an
increasingly rational organisation of labour. For example,
technological improvements in communications and
transportation-the building of roads, the development of
ships and ports, the invention of railroads and the likemake possible an expansion in the size of markets, which
in turn facilitate the realisation of economies of scale
through rationalisation of the organisation of labour.
Specialised tasks which were unprofitable when a factory
was selling to a couple of local villages suddenly become
worthwhile when one sells to an entire nation. or to an
even broader international market. The increased
productivity resulting from these changes then enlarges
the internal market and creates new demands for an even
greater division of labour.


The requirements of the rational organisation of labour
dictate certain consistent, large-scale changes in social
structure. Industrial societies must be predominantly
urban, because it is only in cities that one finds an
adequate supply of skilled labour required to run modern
industries, and because cities have the infrastructure and
services to support large, highly specialised enterprises.
Apartheid in South Africa ultimately broke down because
it was built on the belief that black industrial labor could
somehow be kept permanently in the countryside. For
labour market efficiency, labour has to become
increasingly mobile: workers cannot remain permanently
tied to a particular job, locale, or set of social
relationships, but must become free to move about, learn
new tasks and technologies, and sell their labour to the
highest bidder.


This has a powerful effect in undermining traditional
social groups like tribes, clans, extended families,
religious sects, and so on. The latter may in certain
respects be more humanly satisfying to live in, but since
they are not organised according to the rational principles
of economic efficiency, they tend to lose out to those that
are. What replaces them are “modern” bureaucratic forms
of organisation. Workers are accepted into these
organisations on the basis of their training and ability, not
as a result of family ties or status; and their performance is measured according to established, universal rules. Modern bureaucracies institutionalise the rational organisation of labour by taking complex tasks and dividing them into a hierarchical structure of simpler ones, many of which can be performed as a matter of routine. This “unplanned revolution” has replicated itself in all industrialised countries, regardless of whether that country was capitalist or socialist, and in spite of differences in the religious and cultural backgrounds of the pre-industrial societies out of which they emerged

Q10. Why does the mobility of labour undermine traditional social groups? 

(a) Social groups are rooted to one place. 

(b) Priority of social groups is to keep their family, clan or group together. 

(c) It forces workers to stay away from their families. 

(d) Constant movement brings dissatisfaction to workers.

Q11. Which of the following is a facet of the ‘unplanned revolution’ mentioned in the last paragraph? 

(a) It replicates itself in industrialised countries. 

(b) It routinely slots workers into hierarchies based on established rules. 

(c) It gives preference to skills over nepotism. 

(d) It rewards workers based on comparative performance.

Q12. The author mentions apartheid in South Africa to illustrate which of the following? 

(a) It was not possible to keep black industrial labour permanently in the countryside.

(b) Labour mobility is crucial for labour market efficiency.

(c) Apartheid would have continued if not for labour market efficiency.

(d) Apartheid didn’t work because industrial societies must be urban.

Q13. It can be inferred from the second paragraph that: 

(a) Greater supply of labour leads to increased productivity.

(b) Niche tasks may reap profits upon expansion of scale. 

(c) Infrastructure drives the availability of labour. 

(d) Organisation of labour is possible only through technological improvements. 

Q14. Directions : Four sentences that are a part of paragraph are given below; the sentences may or may not be in the right order; create the sequence that forms a coherent paragraph. 

(1) ‘And yet,’ the author of the saga assures us, ‘men are able to trace their genealogies to Hrómundr Gripsson.’ 

(2) Among those who heard the story was Sverre Sigurdsson, known as King Sverrir in Old Norse.

 (3) For him, this was a lygisaga, a ‘lying story,’ an entertaining fiction. 

(4) The king was entertained by the tale, ‘and he called such lying stories the most entertaining.’

 (a) 2413 

(b) 1342 

(c) 4312 

(d) 2431

Q15. Directions: Four sentences that are a part of paragraph are given below; the sentences may or may not be in the right order; create the sequence that forms a coherent paragraph.

(1) According to the relativist, my beliefs are made true by my perspective, and yours are made true by your perspective. 

(2) This means that they deny that truth is objective, in the first sense that we considered above.

 (3) Relativists deny that beliefs are made true by a reality that is independent of our perspectives.

 (4) Truth relativism is a view about what makes beliefs true or false. 

(a) 2341 

(b) 4132 

(c) 2413 

(d) 3421

Q16. Directions: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:

(1) As the psychologist Barry Schwartz has explained, an initial increase of choice often leads to greater satisfaction, but the effect can reverse as the number of options expands. 

(2) The explosion of choice, which has been particularly pronounced in the West, colours every decision, including the selection of consumer goods, places to live, when and whom to marry, what profession to pursue, and how we identify ourselves. 

(3) People who try to fail-safe their choices by thoroughly considering all the alternatives before making a decision may, paradoxically, experience more regret afterwards. 

(4) Modern times provide fertile ground for regret.

Q17. Directions: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer: 

(1) Formed from sketches made while the London-based filmmaker Gabriella Marsh was living in Barcelona, the brief animation Solos captures daily life in a small square in the historic Gràcia neighbourhood. 

(2) Barcelona’s squares (places in Catalan, plazas in Spanish) are the beating heart of the Catalonian capital – beloved to residents and tourists alike. 

(3) Breaking the monotony of the city’s gridded streets, these open outdoor areas percolate with the comings and goings of al fresco diners, makeshift football matches and all iterations of art and commerce. 

(4) Streets are swept, families squabble and friendly greetings are exchanged

Q18. Directions for odd one out: Five sentences are given below; out of these, four come together to form a coherent paragraph, but one sentence does not fit into the sequence. Choose the sentence that does not fit into the sequence

(1) The figures show the growing global impact of cyberattacks, often in the form of ransomware, which has recently caused havoc in the United States when the Darkside group targeted the Colonial Pipeline network causing gas station queues because of a fear of shortages. 

(2) Better technology enables some security firms to trace the crypto-currency that companies pay to ransomware criminals, usually bitcoin, as ransomware criminals move it around different accounts and cryptocurrencies. 

(3) Significant cyberattacks attacks against critical targets in Europe have doubled in the past year, according to new EU figures obtained by CNN, as the pandemic pushed lives indoors and online. 

(4) The European Union Agency for Cybersecurity, ENISA, told CNN there were 304 significant, malicious attacks against ‘critical sectors’ in 2020, more than double the 146 recorded the year before. 

(5) The agency also reported a 47% rise in attacks on hospitals and health care networks in the same period, as the same criminal networks sought to cash in on the pandemic’s most vital services.

Q19. Directions for odd one out: Five sentences are given below; out of these, four come together to form a coherent paragraph, but one sentence does not fit into the sequence. Choose the sentence that does not fit into the sequence 

(1) Project managers are expected to successfully bring their projects to fruition (achieved pre-determined quality) while keeping a tight rein on budgets (costs) and schedules (time). 

(2) Training should be conducted to impart technical knowledge to the project managers. 

(3) In order to fulfil the requirement of time, cost, and quality, a project manager needs to acquire a set of skills to help him to manage the project and solve a variety of problems during the implementation of the project. 

(4) The project manager is truly the heart and soul of a project. 

(5) These skills can be divided into two categories, which are hard skills and soft skills

Q20. Directions for odd one out: Five sentences are given below; out of these, four come together to form a coherent paragraph, but one sentence does not fit into the sequence. Choose the sentence that does not fit into the sequence 

(1) And then Gandhi came. 

(2) Political freedom has taken new shape and acquired a new content now. 

(3) He was like a powerful current of fresh air, like a beam of light, like a whirlwind that upset many things. 

(4) He spoke their language and constantly drew their attention to their appalling conditions. 

(5) He didn’t descend from the top; he seemed to emerge from the masses of India.

Q21. Directions for odd one out: Five sentences are given below; out of these, four come together to form a coherent paragraph, but one sentence does not fit into the sequence. Choose the sentence that does not fit into the sequence 

1. Given the high rate of asymptomatic transmission, high viral resurgence is inevitable when the lockdown is lifted. 

2. Opening up economic production from a lockdown, even partially, when the COVID19 pandemic has not peaked in the country poses an extraordinary challenge. 

3. Reducing the number of people present at any given time is a universal principle, either through resort to shifts, or arrangements to enable employees to work from home. 

4. Countries around the world are focusing on making the workplace safe, and issuing guidelines to help workers return to their jobs.

5. The Union Health Ministry has addressed the issue through a manual of preventive measures that covers all types of workplaces and depends heavily on behavioural change, with some additional requirements for confined spaces such as offices.

Q22. Directions for odd one out: Five sentences are given below; out of these, four come together to form a coherent paragraph, but one sentence does not fit into the sequence. Choose the sentence that does not fit into the sequence 

1. Deter was admitted to the hospital because she had a paranoid suspicion that her husband was having an affair, and her memory was starting to decline. 

2. Some people have argued that women are at a higher risk of dementia because, on average, men have larger brains than women. 

3. Auguste Deter died on 8 April 1906, aged 55, after spending the last years of her life in a psychiatric hospital in Frankfurt, Germany. 

4. After her death, he performed an autopsy on her brain and identified the amyloid plaques and filament tangles that define the disease from which Deter had suffered, and he gave it his name. 

5. During the last years of her life, Alois Alzheimer was her doctor and he took copious notes.

Directions (23-27): Each of the following questions has a paragraph from which the last sentence has been deleted. From the given options, choose the one that completes the paragraph in the most appropriate way

Q23. The knowledge economy is based on economic values different from those of the “traditional” economy as it has shifted towards intangibles and increasing value by incorporating knowledge into services and products. A recent OECD study points out that “more than half of the total GDP in the rich economies is now knowledge based, including industries such as telecommunications, computers, software, pharmaceuticals, education and television. High-tech industries have nearly doubled their share of manufacturing output over the past two decades, to around 25 percent, and knowledge-intensive services are growing even faster. Knowledge workers…from brain surgeons to journalists… [now] account for eight out of 10 new jobs.” 

(a) The overall physical production capacity especially in the manufacturing sector has been lowered with emphasis shifting to the knowledge industries. 

(b) A greater proportion of economic output is now based on information and knowledge services provision. 

(c) The country is considered to be developed if more than half of its total GDP is knowledge based. 

(d) The knowledge-based sectors have gained importance as the manufacturing sectors have not grown in the desired direction and at the desired pace.

Q24. All big agencies are international and offer job opportunities in Europe, Asia and Latin America. If you are fluent in a foreign language, it helps. At the start of your career in advertising, what you learn is more important than what you earn. Some agencies take great pains to train their people. As in teaching hospitals, their top people devote an enormous amount of time to teaching the interns. Agency employees in countries where advertising is relatively mature do not always welcome attempts to teach them. 

(a) However wet behind the ears, they believe that they have nothing to learn. 

(b) However blue in their face, they believe that they have learned everything. 

(c) However yellow in their approach, they believe that they have nothing to learn. 

(d) However white their intentions are, they believe that there is no learning required.

Q25. Until twenty years ago, dissociative identity disorder was considered very rare, with fewer than two hundred cases reported before 1975. Now cases number in thousands of whom the large majority are females. A rash of reported cases followed Sybil, a popular book about one case of dissociative identity disorder, subsequently made into a television movie. Some critics argued that the flood of such diagnoses reflected a fad among therapists who inadvertently led their patients – many of whom had read the book themselves to develop the signs and symptoms of dissociative identity disorder. 

(a) This may well have been false in some cases, but dissociative identity disorder is now considered an entirely valid diagnosis for many patients. 

(b) This may well have been true in some cases, but dissociative identity disorder is now considered an entirely valid diagnosis for many patients. 

(c) This may well have been true in some cases, but dissociative identity disorder is now considered an entirely invalid diagnosis for all patients. 

(d) This may well have been rare in some cases, but dissociative identity disorder has always been considered an entirely valid diagnosis for many patients.

Q26. The value of a share of stock has hard assets as a part of its value, but it is the speculation about future cash flows by the management team in control of the hard assets that increases the value. When the last person who was still operating under the illusion that management team X could do the job set the price for the stock. When disillusionment sets in, the stock plummets. The same is true for real estate, if it is overvalued by feverish speculation, it certainly can suffer the same fate. 

(a) Investment in real estate is as volatile as the stock market, with a don plunge depending on the number of investors who buy so that they can sell cheap when the market goes on a down side.

 (b) While the stock market may crash instantly because of speculation of stock holders, but in the case of real estate market, it is not easy to dispose off property and so the crash may be soared over a longer period of time. 

(c) Just as people run from the ‘hot stock’ and put their money in sounder, more purely equity-based investments, people will run from overpriced ‘chic’ real estate and settle for something more modest and paid for. 

(d) The manner in which managerial personnel speculate and influence the stock market values, so also the real estate managers speculate and influence the real estate values.

Q27. Ed still had his Nimslo camera to get photographs of a UFO for MUFON. The clock was running and it had been over two weeks since he received the camera. On the night of the 26th of February, Ed and Frances went to the park to see if the UFO would come to them. As they sat on the bench, they noticed a small group of lights appear. Ed felt they were very distant, making the object large, but Frances disagreed, suggesting they were close by, making it small. Ed also noted that it was not like any of the UFOs he had seen before. It was cigar-shaped, had rows of lights, and appeared to glow at one end. He quickly shot off ten photographs and then it disappeared. 

(a) MUFON would be satisfied now that Ed had produced the photographs. 

(b) With the photographs from the Nimslo camera showing a UFO, MUFON began to move towards confirming this case as authentic. 

(c) Ed appeared both excited and confused. 

(d) A few days later, Bruce and Charles Flannigan showed up at Ed’s door with photographs of the UFO.

Directions for Summary: A paragraph is followed by four options which have summarized the passage in their own way. Pick the option that best summarizes the passage.

Q28. Nearly two hundred years ago, the French writer Jean-Baptiste Alphonse Karr wrote, “plus ça change plus c’est la même chose.” The more things change, the more they stay the same. No matter what time and tide bring, defenders of “tradition” and “purity” will always stand its path, armed with all the cudgels at their disposal to beat it back. A recent example is the storm of protests that erupted over the recognition of a non-binary pronoun by Le Petit Robert a leading French dictionary. It has added the word “iel” — a combination of the masculine “il” and the feminine “elle” — in its online list of words, in an effort to be more inclusive of those who do not identify as male or female. The people of France are, understandably, fiercely protective of their language and cultural heritage, but the outcry by some over the dictionary’s move is mystifying. The beauty of a language would not diminish if it opens up to accommodate those who may have felt excluded before. It is the speakers of the language that should decide how many pronouns are appropriate. In the case of French, many gender non-binary people had already been using the new pronoun to self-identify. 

(a) The problem with pronouns 

(b) How dictionaries consider languages as their fiefdom 

(c) Making languages more inclusive 

(d) How France’s identity is intricately linked to its language

Directions for Summary: A paragraph is followed by four options which have summarized the passage in their own way. Pick the option that best summarizes the passage. 

Q29. It is hard to overstate how entrenched coal is in India’s power supply. Only China consumes more coal. Many Indian states have faced power cuts due to lack of coal supply to thermal power plants, revealing the country’s ongoing dependency upon coal. The problem with this is, of course, the immense quantities of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide that coal releases when burned. India contributes significantly to global emissions, ranking third in total emissions, although its per capita emissions continue to be among the lowest in the world. Coal power plants also generate huge amounts of air pollution in India, which in turn kills over a million people a year in the country.

(a) Both China and India consume huge amounts of coal which is detrimental to the health of their citizens. 

(b) India’s dependence on coal for generating electricity comes at a very high cost for the health of its citizens. 

(c) India ranks third in total global emissions, although its per capita emissions continue to be among the lowest in the world. 

(d) Coal power plants generate huge amounts of air pollution in India, which in turn kills over a million people a year in the country.

Directions for Summary: A paragraph is followed by four options which have summarized the passage in their own way. Pick the option that best summarizes the passage.

Q30. A record number of visitors queued outside the National Gallery in January 1922, despite the drizzly conditions, to see a single painting: Thomas Gainsborough’s Blue Boy (c 1770). The artwork was bought by a US collector in 1921 and its imminent departure drew 90,000 people to get a last glimpse what the press had dubbed ‘the world’s most beautiful painting’. An article in the London Times claimed that the Blue Boy exemplified the ‘courtly grace and serene carriage of a people who knew themselves a great people and were not ashamed to own it. To the general population, Gainsborough’s Blue Boy was the epitome of high culture and the noble British character. 

(a) Thomas Gainsborough’s Blue Boy was the world’s most beautiful painting and a record number of people came to catch a last glimpse of it before it was shipped overseas. 

(b) Thomas Gainsborough’s Blue Boy symbolised the high British culture of courtly graces and good manners and a record number of people came to catch a last glimpse of it. 

(c) For the general public, the artwork, Blue Boy, represented the high culture of Britain and a record number of people visited the National Gallery to catch a last glimpse of it before it was shipped to the United States. 

(d) A record number of visitors queued outside the National Gallery in January 1922, despite the drizzly conditions, to see a single painting: Thomas Gainsborough’s Blue Boy.

ANSWER KEY

1. ( a ) 

2. ( c ) 

3. ( c ) 

4. ( a ) 

5. ( c ) 

6. ( a )

 7. ( c ) 

8. ( a ) 

9. ( c ) 

10. ( a ) 

11. ( c ) 

12. ( b ) 

13. ( b ) 

14. ( d ) 

15. ( b )

16. 4213 

17. 2314 

18. 2 

19. 2 

20. 2 

21. 1 

22 . 2 

23. ( b ) 

24. ( a ) 

25. ( b ) 

26. ( c ) 

27. ( a ) 

28. (c) 

29. (b) 

30. (c)

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