Electricity Billing supply HT

ELECTRICITY BILLING-HT SUPPLY

The electricity billing by utilities for medium and large enterprises in high tension (HT)  Category is often done on a two-part tariff structure

  • On part of capacity,
  • the second part is for actual energy

drawn during the billing cycle. the capacity or demand is a KVA (apparent power). the reactive energy KVArh drawn by the service is also recorded.Electricity Billing supply HT

THE TARIFF STRUCTURE OF HT ELECTRICITY BILLING

The tariff structure of HT supply generally includes the following components:

MAXIMUM DEMAND CHARGES:- These charges relate to the maximum demand registered during the month/billing period and the corresponding rate of utility.

ENERGY CHARGES:- These charges relate to energy consumed during the month/billing period and the corresponding rates, often levied in slabs of use rates.

POWER FACTOR:- Power factor penalty or bonus rate, as levied by most utilities are to contain reactive power drawn from the grid.

FUEL COST:- fuel cost adjustment charges as levied by some utilities are to adjust the increasing fuel expenses over a base reference value.

ELECTRICITY DUTY CHANGES

LIGHTING AND FAN POWER CONSUMPTION:- lighting and fan power consumption is often at higher rates levied sometimes on a slab basis or an actual metering basis.

TIME OF DAY(TOD):- Time of day (TOD) like peak and non-peak hours are also prevalent in tariff structure provisions

ELECTRICITY BILLING-LT SUPPLY:-

The electricity billing by utilities for the LT category is often done on one part tariff structure, i.e. billing is done for actual energy drawn during the billing cycle.

THE TARIFF STRUCTURE OF LT ELECTRICITY BILLING:- the tariff structure of LT supply generally includes the following components:-

a. ENERGY CHARGES:- These charges relate to energy (kilowatt hours) consumed during the month/billing period and corresponding rates, often levied in slabs of use rates.

b. METER RENTALS

TRANSFORMERS:-

A transformer can accept energy at one voltage and deliver it at another voltage. this permits electrical energy to be generated at relatively low voltages and transmitted at high voltages and low current thus reducing line loss and voltage drop. Transformers consist of two or more coils that are electrically insulated but magnetically linked.

the primary coil is connected to the power source and the secondary coil is connected to the loads.

n = N2/N1

Where N2 = Number of turns on the secondary, N1= Number of turns on the primary

In other words,

n = V2/V1

Voltage regulation of a transformer is the percent increase in voltage from full load to no load.

 

TYPE OF TRANSFORMERS:- Transformers are classified into two categories…..

  1. POWER TRANSFORMERS
  2. DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER

POWER TRANSFORMERS are used in transmission networks of higher voltages deployed for step-up and step-down transformer applications (400KV, 200KV, 110KV, 66KV, 33KV) .

DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS are used for lower voltage distribution networks as mean end-use connectivity (11KV, 6.6KV, 3.3KV, 440V, 230V)

RATING OF TRANSFORMERS

Rating of the transformers is calculated based on the:-

  • connected load
  • applying the diversity factor to the connected load

DIVERSITY FACTOR:-

The diversity factor is defined as the ratio of the overall maximum demand of the plant to the sum of the individual maximum demand of various equipment. diversity factor varies from industry to industry and depends on various factors such as individual loads, loads factor, and future expansion needs of the plant.

DIVERSITY FACTOR < 1

TRANSFORMER LOSSES AND EFFICIENCY:-

the efficiency varies anywhere between 96 to 99 percent. the efficiency of the transformers not only depends on the design but also on the effective operating load.

TRANSFORMER LOSSES CONSIST OF TWO PARTS

  1. NO-LOAD LOSS
  2. LOAD LOSS

NO-LOAD LOSS

NO-LOAD LOSS called core loss is the power consumed to sustain the magnetic field in the transformer steel core. core loss occurs whenever the transformed is energized

 

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